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Why do women live longer than men?

Apr 11th 2022, 6:59 am
Posted by anthonygle
Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And صبغ الشعر بالاسود how does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we have only partial answers. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure what the contribution of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men today however not as in the past, has to relate to the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points also apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.

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